fasstr, the Flow Analysis Summary Statistics Tool for R, is a set of R functions to tidy, summarize, analyze, trend, and visualize streamflow data. This package summarizes continuous daily mean streamflow data into various daily, monthly, annual, and long-term statistics, completes trending and frequency analyses, with outputs in both table and plot formats.
This vignette documents the usage of the many functions and arguments provided in
fasstr. This vignette is a high-level adjunct to the details found in the various function documentations (see
help(package = "fasstr") for documentation). You’ll learn how to install the package and a HYDAT database, input data into
fasstr functions, add relevant columns and rows to daily data, screen data for outliers and missing dates, calculate and visualize various summary statistics, trend annual flows, and complete volume frequency analyses.
A quick reference PDF cheat sheet is also available for
fasstr usage of functions and arguments. It can be downloaded here.
This guide contains the following sections to help understand the usage of the
fasstr functions and arguments:
You can install
fasstr directly from CRAN:
Several other packages will be installed with
fasstr. These include
tidyhydat for downloading Water Survey of Canada hydrometric data,
zyp for trending,
ggplot2 for creating plots, and
dplyr for data wrangling and summarizing, amongst others.
fasstr functions you can either load the package using the
library() function or access a specific function using a double-colon (e.g.
fasstr exports the pipe,
%>%, so it can be used for tidy workflows. For this vignette, functions from the
dplyr package will also be used.
To use the
station_number argument of the
fasstr functions, you will need to download a Water Survey of Canada HYDAT database to your computer using the following
tidyhydat function. The function will save the database on your computer and know where to find it each time you open R or RStudio. Due to the size of the database, it will take several minutes to download.
As HYDAT is updated frequently you may want to periodically update it yourself using the function above. You can check the local version using the following code:
All functions in
fasstr require a daily mean streamflow data set from one or more hydrometric stations. Long-term and continuous data sets are preferred for most analyses, but seasonal and partial data can be used. Note that if partial data sets are used,
NA‘s may be produced for certain statistics. Please see the ’Handling Missing Dates’ section in Section 8 for more information. Data is provided to each function using one of the following arguments:
data, as a data frame of daily flow values, or
station_number, as a list of Water Survey of Canada HYDAT station numbers.
data option, a data frame of daily data containing columns of dates (YYYY-MM-DD in date format), values (mean daily discharge in cubic metres per second in numeric format), and, optionally, grouping identifiers (character string of station names or numbers) is called. By default, the functions will look for columns identified as ‘Date’, ‘Value’, and ‘STATION_NUMBER’, respectively, to be compatible with the HYDAT default columns. However, columns of different names can be identified using the
groups column arguments (ex.
values = Yield_mm). The values of these arguments are not required to be surrounded by quotes; both
Date will provide the appropriate column called “Date”. An example where groupings other than station numbers could be used include certain time periods of a study for a single station (before, during, and after watershed experiment treatments or before and after the construction of a dam, appropriately identified in a column). The following is an example of an appropriate data frame with default column names (STATION_NUMBER not required):
STATION_NUMBER Date Value 1 08NM116 1949-04-01 1.13 2 08NM116 1949-04-02 1.53 3 08NM116 1949-04-03 2.07 4 08NM116 1949-04-04 2.07 5 08NM116 1949-04-05 2.21 6 08NM116 1949-04-06 2.21
The following is an example
fasstr function arguments if your daily data data frame has the default columns names (no need to list them):
The following is an example if your daily data data frame has non-default columns names of “Stations”, “Dates”, and “Flows”:
data argument is listed first in the list of arguments for each function, so flow data frames can be passed onto
fasstr functions using the pipe operator,
%>%, without listing the data frame in a tidy workflow.
Alternatively, you can directly extract flow data directly from a HYDAT database by listing station numbers in the
station_number argument while leaving the data arguments blank. Data frames from HYDAT also include ‘Parameter’ and ‘Symbol’ columns. The following is an example of listing stations:
This package allows for multiple stations (or other groupings) to be analyzed in many of the functions; provided they are identified using the
groups column argument (defaults to STATION_NUMBER). If named grouping column doesn’t exist or is improperly named then all values listed in the
values column will be summarized.
fasstr provides various functions to help in streamflow analyses. They can be generally categorized into the following groups (with more details in the sections below):
Functions that produce tables create them as tibble data frames. To facilitate the writing of the
fasstr tibbles to a directory as .csv, .xls, or .xlsx files with some functionality of rounding digits, the
write_results() function can be used (see section 9 for more information).
Functions that produce plots create them as lists of
ggplot2 objects. The use of
ggplot2 plots allows for further customization of plots for the user (axis titles, colours, etc.). All plotting functions produce lists to be consistent with table naming conventions of
fasstr, allow multiple plots to be created with one function, and to easily allow the saving of multiple plots to a directory. To assist with the saving of lists of plots, a provided function called
write_plots() will directly save the list of plots within a directory or single PDF document, with the
fasstr plot objects names (see section 9 for more information). Individual plots can be subsetted from their lists using either the dollar sign, $ (e.g.
one_plot <- plots$plotname), or double square brackets, [ ] (e.g.
one_plot <- plots[[plotname]] or
one_plot <- plots[]).
Some functions produce both tibbles and plots as lists and can be subsequently subsetted as desired.
There are several functions that are used to prepare your flow data set for your own analysis. These functions begin with
fill_ and add columns or rows, respectively, to your flow data frame. These functions include:
fill_missing_dates()- fills in missing dates or dates with no flow values with NA
add_date_variables()- add year, month, and day of year variables (and water years if selected)
add_seasons()- add a column of seasons
add_rolling_means()- add rolling n-day averages (e.g. 7-day rolling average)
add_basin_area()- add a basin area column to daily flows
add_daily_volume()- add daily volumetric flows (in cubic metres)
add_daily_yield()- add daily water yields (in millimetres)
add_cumulative_volume()- add daily cumulative volumetric flows on an annual basis (in cubic metres)
add_cumulative_yield()- add daily cumulative water yields on an annual basis (in millimetres)
The functions are set up to easily incorporate the use of the pipe operator:
# A tibble: 21,915 x 8 Date Value CalendarYear Month MonthName WaterYear DayofYear Q7Day <date> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 1960-01-01 62.9 1960 1 Jan 1960 1 NA 2 1960-01-02 58 1960 1 Jan 1960 2 NA 3 1960-01-03 54.9 1960 1 Jan 1960 3 NA 4 1960-01-04 51.3 1960 1 Jan 1960 4 NA 5 1960-01-05 47.3 1960 1 Jan 1960 5 NA 6 1960-01-06 46.7 1960 1 Jan 1960 6 NA 7 1960-01-07 43.9 1960 1 Jan 1960 7 52.1 8 1960-01-08 41.9 1960 1 Jan 1960 8 49.1 9 1960-01-09 40.8 1960 1 Jan 1960 9 46.7 10 1960-01-10 38.5 1960 1 Jan 1960 10 44.3 # ... with 21,905 more rows
To ensure that analyses do not skip over dates, the
fill_missing_dates() function looks for gaps in dates and adds the dates and fills in the flow values with
NA. It does not do any gap filling (linear or correlations, for example), it assigns missing flow values with
NA. It also fills dates to create complete start and end years. For example, if data starts in April, all flow values starting from January will be filled with
NA. The timing of the year depends on the
water_year_start argument. When
water_year_start is left blank, it will fill to complete calendar years (Jan-Dec). If
water_year_start is set to another month (numeric) then it will fill to complete water years of the desired year.
Run and compare the following lines to see how missing dates are filled:
It is ideal to fill missing dates before using other
add_* functions so dates added are not missing the other new date values.
add_date_variables() function adds useful dates columns for summarizing data. The function defaults include ‘CalendarYear’, ‘Month’ (numeric), ‘MonthName’ (month abbreviation; e.g. Jan), ‘WaterYear’ (year based on selected
water_year_start), and ‘DayofYear’ (the day of year based on selected
water_year_start from 1-365). The month of the start of the water year is chosen using the
water_year_start argument, which defaults to “1” for January.
Run and compare the following lines to see how the date columns are added:
add_seasons() function adds a column of seasons identifiers called “Season”. The length of seasons, in months, is provided using the
seasons_length argument. As seasons are grouped by months the length of the seasons must be divisible into 12 with season lengths of 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 12 months. The start of the first season coincides with the start month of each year; ‘Jan-Jun’ for 6-month seasons starting with calendar years or ‘Dec-Feb’ for 3-month seasons starting with water year starting in December. Run and compare the following lines to see how seasons columns are added:
# 2 seasons starting January add_seasons(station_number = "08NM116", seasons_length = 6) # 4 seasons starting October add_seasons(station_number = "08NM116", water_year_start = 10, seasons_length = 3) # 4 Seasons starting December add_seasons(station_number = "08NM116", water_year_start = 12, seasons_length = 3)
Adding rolling means (running means or averages) of daily data, can be done using the
add_rolling_means() functions. Based on the selected “n” rolling days using the
roll_days argument, a column for each “n” will be added. One rolling mean column can be added by listing one number (e.g.
roll_days = 7) or multiple columns can be added by listing each one (e.g.
roll_days = c(3,7,30)). Each column will be named “Q’n’Day” where n is the number (e.g. Q7Day or Q30Day).
Where the alignment of the rolling mean is compared to the date is important to know when analyzing data. The alignment, using the
roll_align argument, determine the date at which the rolling means occur.
roll_align = "right"- the date will have the mean of that date’s flow value and the previous n-1 days
roll_align = "left"- the date will have the mean of that date’s flow value and the next n-1 days
roll_align = "center"
roll_days- date will have the mean of that date’s flow value and half of n-1 days before and half of n-1 days after
roll_days- date will have the mean of that date’s flow and half of n days after, and the remaining before ((n/2)-1 days before the date) (i.e. the first of the middle two dates)
Odd roll_days example (column headers have alignment direction added):
# A tibble: 6 x 5 Date Value Q5Day_left Q5Day_center Q5Day_right <date> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 1960-01-01 62.9 54.9 NA NA 2 1960-01-02 58 51.6 NA NA 3 1960-01-03 54.9 48.8 54.9 NA 4 1960-01-04 51.3 46.2 51.6 NA 5 1960-01-05 47.3 44.1 48.8 54.9 6 1960-01-06 46.7 42.4 46.2 51.6
Even roll_days example:
# A tibble: 6 x 5 Date Value Q6Day_left Q6Day_center Q6Day_right <date> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 1960-01-01 62.9 53.5 NA NA 2 1960-01-02 58 50.4 NA NA 3 1960-01-03 54.9 47.7 53.5 NA 4 1960-01-04 51.3 45.3 50.4 NA 5 1960-01-05 47.3 43.2 47.7 NA 6 1960-01-06 46.7 41.5 45.3 53.5
To add a column of basin areas, for viewing or analyzing, the
add_basin_area() function can be used. The basin area will be extracted from HYDAT, if available, under two conditions where the
basin_area argument can be left blank:
station_numberargument is used
datadata frame has a grouping column consisting of HYDAT station numbers
If you would like to apply your own basin area size(s) or override the HYDAT areas, you use the
basin_area argument in the following ways:
basin_area = 800)
basin_area = c("08NM116" = 800, "08NM242" = 4))
Run and compare the following lines to see how basin area columns are added:
# Using the station_number argument or data frame as HYDAT groupings add_basin_area(station_number = "08NM116") # Using the basin_area argument add_basin_area(station_number = "08NM116", basin_area = 800) # Using the basin_area argument with multiple stations add_basin_area(station_number = c("08NM116","08NM242"), basin_area = c("08NM116" = 800, "08NM242" = 4))
Converting daily mean discharge into other units can be useful for different analyses. Columns of total daily discharge converted from daily mean into volumetric flows, named “Volume_m3” in cubic metres per second, or area-based water yields, named “Yield_mm” in millimetres, can be used using the
add_daily_yield() functions, respectively. Volumetric gives the total volume per day, and the water yield gives the total water depth, provided an upstream drainage basin area is provided. Basin area can be provided using the
basin_area argument, or if there is a
groups column of HYDAT station numbers in your data then it will automatically be extracted from HYDAT, if available. (see `adding basin areas above or section 8 for more information).
# Add a column of converted discharge (m3/s) into volume (m3) add_daily_volume(station_number = "08NM116") # Add a column of converted discharge (m3/s) into yield (mm), with HYDAT station groups add_daily_yield(station_number = "08NM116") # Add a column of converted discharge (m3/s) into yield (mm), with setting the basin area add_daily_yield(station_number = "08NM116", basin_area = 800)
These functions create a rolling cumulative of daily total flows on an annual basis, as volumetric flows, named “Cumul_Volume_m3” in cubic metres per second, or area-based water yields, named “Cumul_Yield_mm” in millimetres. A total flow for a given a day is the sum of all previous days and that day, within a given year (Jan 15 cumulative flow value is the sum of all total flows from Jan 1-15). It restarts for each year (based on the starting month) and no values for a year are calculated if there is missing data for a given year as the total for a given year cannot be determined.
# Add a column of cumulative volumes (m3) add_cumulative_volume(station_number = "08NM116") # Add a column of cumulative yield (mm), with HYDAT station number groups add_cumulative_yield(station_number = "08NM116") # Add a column of cumulative yield (mm), with setting the basin area add_cumulative_yield(station_number = "08NM116", basin_area = 800)
By utilizing the
data argument as the first one list, it enables the user to work with the tidying functions within a tidy ‘pipeline’ and can pass onto the other
# A tibble: 25,202 x 19 STATION_NUMBER Date Parameter Value Symbol CalendarYear Month MonthName <chr> <date> <chr> <dbl> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <fct> 1 08NM116 1949-01-01 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 2 08NM116 1949-01-02 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 3 08NM116 1949-01-03 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 4 08NM116 1949-01-04 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 5 08NM116 1949-01-05 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 6 08NM116 1949-01-06 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 7 08NM116 1949-01-07 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 8 08NM116 1949-01-08 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 9 08NM116 1949-01-09 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan 10 08NM116 1949-01-10 Flow NA <NA> 1949 1 Jan # ... with 25,192 more rows, and 11 more variables: WaterYear <dbl>, # DayofYear <dbl>, Season <fct>, Q3Day <dbl>, Q7Day <dbl>, Q30Day <dbl>, # Basin_Area_sqkm <dbl>, Volume_m3 <dbl>, Yield_mm <dbl>, # Cumul_Volume_m3 <dbl>, Cumul_Yield_mm <dbl>
If you are looking at some data for the first time, it may be useful to explore the data quality and availability. The following functions will help to explore the data:
plot_flow_data()- plot daily mean streamflow
screen_flow_data()- calculate annual summary and identify missing data
plot_data_screening()- plot annual summary statistics for data screening
plot_missing_dates()- plot annual and monthly missing dates
To view the entire daily flow data set to view for gaps and outliers, or changes in flow over time, the
plot_flow_data() function will plot all daily data in the data frame. The plot can be filtered by years and dates.
When plotting multiple stations, they automatically produce a separate plot for each station. However, setting
one_plot = TRUE will plot all stations on the same plot.
screen_flow_data() function provides an overview of the number of flow values per year and each month per year, along with annual minimums, maximums, means, and standard deviations to inspect for outliers in the data.
# A tibble: 69 x 22 STATION_NUMBER Year n_days n_Q n_missing_Q Minimum Maximum Mean Median <chr> <dbl> <int> <int> <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1949 365 183 182 0.623 49.3 7.77 2.27 2 08NM116 1950 365 183 182 0.623 52.1 7.76 2.07 3 08NM116 1951 365 183 182 0.623 49.3 8.99 3.71 4 08NM116 1952 366 183 183 0.850 50.7 10.3 3.17 5 08NM116 1953 365 183 182 0.340 62.3 8.30 4.56 6 08NM116 1954 365 183 182 0.566 36.2 11.3 5.38 7 08NM116 1955 365 160 205 0.396 34 8.97 4.02 8 08NM116 1956 366 176 190 0.719 38.5 9.04 3.97 9 08NM116 1957 365 170 195 0.680 42.5 8.88 2.44 10 08NM116 1958 365 183 182 0.311 34 6.98 2.32 # ... with 59 more rows, and 13 more variables: StandardDeviation <dbl>, # Jan_missing_Q <int>, Feb_missing_Q <int>, Mar_missing_Q <int>, # Apr_missing_Q <int>, May_missing_Q <int>, Jun_missing_Q <int>, # Jul_missing_Q <int>, Aug_missing_Q <int>, Sep_missing_Q <int>, # Oct_missing_Q <int>, Nov_missing_Q <int>, Dec_missing_Q <int>
To view the summary data in the
screen_flow_data() function, the
plot_data_screening() function will plot the annual minimums, maximums, means, and standard deviations.
plot_missing_dates() function to plot out the missing dates for each month of each year to view for data availability and gaps.
The majority of the
fasstr functions produce statistics over a certain time period, either long-term, annually, monthly, or daily. These statistics are produced using the
calc_* functions and can be visualized using their corresponding
plot_* functions. The following sections are an overview of these functions.
These functions calculate the means, medians, maximums, minimums, and percentiles (choose using the
percentiles argument) of a flow data set:
calc_longterm_daily_stats()- calculate the long-term and long-term monthly summary statistics based on daily mean flows
calc_longterm_monthly_stats()- calculate the long-term annual and monthly summary statistics based on monthly mean flows
calc_annual_stats()- calculate annual summary statistics
calc_monthly_stats()- calculate annual monthly summary statistics
calc_daily_stats()- calculate daily summary statistics
These basic statistics can also be viewed using their corresponding plotting functions:
plot_longterm_daily_stats()- plot the long-term monthly summary statistics based on daily mean flows
plot_longterm_monthly_stats()- plot the long-term monthly summary statistics based on annual monthly mean flows
plot_annual_stats()- plot annual summary statistics
plot_monthly_stats()- plot annual monthly summary statistics
plot_daily_stats()- plot daily summary statistics
This function produced flow duration curves:
plot_flow_duration()- plot flow duration curves
These other long-term functions summarize the data over the entire record:
calc_longterm_mean()- calculate the long-term mean annual discharge
calc_longterm_percentile()- calculate the long-term percentiles
calc_flow_percentile()- calculate the percentile rank of a flow value
plot_ functions calculate the long-term and long-term monthly mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles of all daily mean flows.
calc_longterm_daily_stats(), for a given month, all daily flow values for a given month over the entire record are summarized together. For the ‘Long-term’ category, it summarizes all flow values over the entire record to determine the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and selected percentiles of daily flows. You can also specify a certain period of months to summarize together (ex. Jul-Sep flows) using the
custom_months argument (listing the months) and labeling it using the
custom_months_label argument (ex. “Summer Flows”).
# A tibble: 13 x 8 STATION_NUMBER Month Mean Median Maximum Minimum P10 P90 <chr> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Jan 1.14 0.940 9.5 0.160 0.576 1.78 2 08NM116 Feb 1.16 0.960 5.81 0.140 0.542 1.95 3 08NM116 Mar 1.80 1.29 17.5 0.380 0.717 3.55 4 08NM116 Apr 8.19 5.88 53.5 0.505 1.42 18.0 5 08NM116 May 24.4 21.8 80.8 2.55 10.3 40.8 6 08NM116 Jun 22.5 20.3 86.2 0.450 6.20 41.1 7 08NM116 Jul 6.23 3.94 76.8 0.332 1.18 13.7 8 08NM116 Aug 2.18 1.56 22.4 0.427 0.834 4.15 9 08NM116 Sep 2.30 1.60 17.6 0.364 0.771 4.70 10 08NM116 Oct 2.13 1.65 15.2 0.267 0.844 4.25 11 08NM116 Nov 1.92 1.51 11.7 0.260 0.599 3.75 12 08NM116 Dec 1.26 1.07 7.30 0.244 0.541 2.20 13 08NM116 Long-term 6.28 1.81 86.2 0.140 0.710 20.1
plot_longterm_daily_stats() will plot the monthly mean, median, maximum, and minimum values along with selected inner and outer percentiles ribbons on one plot. Change the inner and outer percentile ranges using the
outer_percentiles arguments, remove the maximum and minimum ribbon using
include_extremes = FALSE, or add a specific year using
calc_longterm_monthly_stats() functions will calculate the mean, median, maximum, and percentiles of monthly mean flows from all years. Meaning the all daily flows for each month and each year are averaged, and the statistics are based on these annual monthly means. The “Annual” data row summarizes the mean, median, maximum, and percentiles from all annual means.
# A tibble: 13 x 8 STATION_NUMBER Month Mean Median Maximum Minimum P10 P90 <chr> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Jan 1.14 0.972 6.12 0.316 0.625 1.67 2 08NM116 Feb 1.16 0.965 3.83 0.353 0.600 1.72 3 08NM116 Mar 1.80 1.44 6.93 0.507 0.843 2.84 4 08NM116 Apr 8.19 7.73 23.9 1.60 2.88 13.0 5 08NM116 May 24.4 23.8 45.0 14.0 16.1 32.7 6 08NM116 Jun 22.5 22.1 48.6 3.15 11.8 35.6 7 08NM116 Jul 6.23 4.42 25.6 0.921 1.98 12.9 8 08NM116 Aug 2.18 1.76 10.2 0.872 1.13 3.37 9 08NM116 Sep 2.30 1.72 8.11 0.700 1.01 4.05 10 08NM116 Oct 2.13 1.82 5.66 0.533 1.02 3.66 11 08NM116 Nov 1.92 1.54 5.41 0.498 0.715 3.38 12 08NM116 Dec 1.26 1.10 3.65 0.450 0.548 2.14 13 08NM116 Annual 6.28 6.26 11.1 2.88 4.37 8.36
plot_longterm_monthly_stats() function plots the data, with similar options as
plot_annual_stats() functions calculate the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles of daily flows for every year of data provided. In calculating, all daily flow values are grouped by year.
# A tibble: 44 x 8 STATION_NUMBER Year Mean Median Maximum Minimum P10 P90 <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 8.43 1.34 66 0.447 0.709 33.0 2 08NM116 1975 5.48 1.54 48.7 0.320 0.580 19.6 3 08NM116 1976 8.18 3.84 71.1 0.736 0.884 25.6 4 08NM116 1977 4.38 1.26 36 0.564 0.776 17.2 5 08NM116 1978 6.75 3.28 44.5 0.532 0.828 19.7 6 08NM116 1979 4.40 1.56 43 0.411 0.618 15.9 7 08NM116 1980 5.37 1.88 46.2 0.623 0.793 20.1 8 08NM116 1981 7.67 2.77 60.6 0.398 1.5 22.3 9 08NM116 1982 8.46 2.68 54.5 0.815 1.40 30.3 10 08NM116 1983 7.85 3.13 60.2 0.530 1.44 23.5 # ... with 34 more rows
The percentiles in the
plot_annual_stats() function are fully customizable like the
plot_monthly_stats() functions calculate the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles of daily flows for each month of each year. In calculating, all daily flow values are grouped by year and month.
# A tibble: 528 x 9 STATION_NUMBER Year Month Mean Median Maximum Minimum P10 P90 <chr> <dbl> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 Jan 1.02 1.02 1.26 0.864 0.906 1.12 2 08NM116 1974 Feb 0.985 0.984 1.06 0.830 0.944 1.04 3 08NM116 1974 Mar 1.21 1.12 2.14 0.855 0.937 1.97 4 08NM116 1974 Apr 7.76 4.91 28.3 1.85 1.92 18.7 5 08NM116 1974 May 29.8 30.3 50.4 15.9 17.5 43.3 6 08NM116 1974 Jun 44.5 44.9 66 20.6 25.6 61.3 7 08NM116 1974 Jul 9.97 8.21 24.8 2.42 3.79 20.1 8 08NM116 1974 Aug 1.76 1.61 3.71 0.960 1.20 2.28 9 08NM116 1974 Sep 1.47 1.39 2.10 1.13 1.20 1.78 10 08NM116 1974 Oct 1.23 1.12 2.08 0.838 0.867 1.69 # ... with 518 more rows
The percentiles in the
plot_monthly_stats() function are fully customizable like the
calc_ function. A plot for each different statistic (meana, medians, percentiles, etc.) is created to visualize the monthly patterns over the years.
plot_daily_stats() functions calculate the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles of daily flows for each day of the year. For example, for a given day of year (i.e. day 1 (Jan-01) or day 2 (Jan-02)), all flow values for that day from the entire record are summarized together. Only the first 365 days of each year are summarized (ignores the 366th day from leap years). In calculating, all daily flow values are grouped by day of year.
# A tibble: 365 x 11 STATION_NUMBER Date DayofYear Mean Median Minimum Maximum P5 P25 P75 <chr> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Jan-~ 1 1.08 0.970 0.328 2.51 0.540 0.692 1.38 2 08NM116 Jan-~ 2 1.05 0.920 0.310 2.26 0.526 0.690 1.35 3 08NM116 Jan-~ 3 1.03 0.897 0.290 2 0.524 0.703 1.22 4 08NM116 Jan-~ 4 1.04 0.903 0.284 2.52 0.505 0.732 1.29 5 08NM116 Jan-~ 5 1.03 0.895 0.302 2.25 0.534 0.709 1.23 6 08NM116 Jan-~ 6 1.03 0.876 0.315 2.32 0.519 0.742 1.30 7 08NM116 Jan-~ 7 1.06 0.905 0.312 2.80 0.493 0.744 1.20 8 08NM116 Jan-~ 8 1.10 0.960 0.314 4 0.514 0.755 1.23 9 08NM116 Jan-~ 9 1.11 0.977 0.327 4.20 0.509 0.740 1.33 10 08NM116 Jan-~ 10 1.12 0.947 0.334 4.70 0.450 0.707 1.30 # ... with 355 more rows, and 1 more variable: P95 <dbl>
The plotting daily statistics function will plot the monthly mean, median, maximum, and minimum values along with selected inner and outer percentiles ribbons on one plot. Change the inner and outer percentile ranges using the
outer_percentiles arguments, remove the maximum and minimum ribbon using
include_extremes = FALSE, or add a specific year using
Flow duration curves can be produced using the function, where selected months and time periods can be selected:
calc_longterm_mean() calculates the mean of all the daily flows, and specific percents of the long-term mean (using
percent_MAD argument). It can also be known as the long-term mean annual discharge, MAD.
# A tibble: 1 x 5 STATION_NUMBER LTMAD `5%MAD` `10%MAD` `20%MAD` <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 6.28 0.314 0.628 1.26
calc_longterm_percentile() calculates the selected long-term percentiles of all the daily flow values.
# A tibble: 1 x 4 STATION_NUMBER P25 P50 P75 <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1.03 1.81 5.72
calc_flow_percentile() calculates the percentile rank of a specified flow value, provided as
flow_value. It compares the flow value to all daily flow values to determines the percentile rank.
# A tibble: 1 x 2 STATION_NUMBER Percentile <chr> <dbl> 1 08NM116 76.3
plot_ functions will summarize any values provided to the functions with the default column being ‘Value’. While for
fasstr this defaults to daily mean flows, any daily value can be summarized (water level, precipitation amount, etc.) if the methods of analyses are similar for the parameter type. As there are no units presented in the
calc_ functions this should not be problem for most calculations. However, the plots come standard with a “Discharge (cms)” y-axis, which can be changed afterwards using
To facilitate the plotting of the daily volume or yield statistics from
fasstr, after adding them to your flow data using the
add_daily_yield() functions, by listing the
values argument as either ‘Volume_m3’ or ‘Yield_mm’ (from their respective
add_* functions), the discharge axis title will adjust accordingly.
Total volumetric of runoff yield flows within a given year can provide important hydrological information on a basin-wide scale. These functions calculate the total volume (in cubic metres) or yield (in millimetres; based on basin size) for a flow data set, at the annual, monthly, or daily cumulative scale.
calc_annual_cumulative_stats()- calculate annual (and seasonal) cumulative flows
calc_monthly_cumulative_stats()- calculate cumulative monthly flow statistics
calc_daily_cumulative_stats()- calculate cumulative daily flow statistics
These statistics can also be viewed using their corresponding plotting functions:
plot_annual_cumulative_stats()- plot annual and seasonal total flows
plot_monthly_cumulative_stats()- plot cumulative monthly flow statistics
plot_daily_cumulative_stats()- plot cumulative daily flow statistics
While these functions default to volumetric flows, using
use_yield = TRUE and
basin_area arguments will calculate totals in runoff yield. If there is a
groups column of HYDAT station numbers, then the function will automatically pull the basin area out of HYDAT if available; otherwise a basin area will be required. Due to the requirements of a complete annual data set to calculate total flows, only years of complete data are used.
calc_annual_cumulative_stats() function provides the total annual volume or runoff yield (if
use_yield = TRUE is used). It totals all flows for a given year in cubic metres.
# A tibble: 44 x 3 STATION_NUMBER Year Total_Volume_m3 <chr> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 265854182. 2 08NM116 1975 172900397. 3 08NM116 1976 258693177. 4 08NM116 1977 138177100. 5 08NM116 1978 212792574. 6 08NM116 1979 138807734. 7 08NM116 1980 169956317. 8 08NM116 1981 241854163. 9 08NM116 1982 266735721. 10 08NM116 1983 247618080. # ... with 34 more rows
By using the
include_seasons = TRUE (logical TRUE/FALSE) argument, total seasonal flows columns will be added to the results. Two columns of two-seasons (2-six months), and four columns of four-seasons (4-three months) will be added. The start month of the first seasons will begin in the first month of the year (ex. Jan for Calendar years or Oct for water years starting in October).
# A tibble: 44 x 9 STATION_NUMBER Year Total_Volume_m3 `Jan-Jun_Volume~ `Jul-Dec_Volume~ <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 265854182. 223662989. 42191194. 2 08NM116 1975 172900397. 136045958. 36854438. 3 08NM116 1976 258693177. 164417817. 94275360. 4 08NM116 1977 138177100. 115279113. 22897987. 5 08NM116 1978 212792574. 146659335. 66133239. 6 08NM116 1979 138807734. 117444383. 21363350. 7 08NM116 1980 169956317. 131126774. 38829542. 8 08NM116 1981 241854163. 165675542. 76178621. 9 08NM116 1982 266735721. 154229097. 112506624. 10 08NM116 1983 247618080. 191691360. 55926720. # ... with 34 more rows, and 4 more variables: `Jan-Mar_Volume_m3` <dbl>, # `Apr-Jun_Volume_m3` <dbl>, `Jul-Sep_Volume_m3` <dbl>, # `Oct-Dec_Volume_m3` <dbl>
The total volumes for each year can be plotted using the
plot_annual_cumulative_stats() function. When using
include_seasons = TRUE two additional plots will be created, one for two- and four-seasons.
plot_monthly_cumulative_stats() functions calculate the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles of total cumulative monthly flows. For each month of each year, the total volume or runoff yield is determined. Then within a given year, the cumulative total for each month is determined by added all previous months (ex. Jan = Jan total; Feb = Jan+Feb totals, etc.). Then the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles are calculated based on those monthly cumulative totals for each year. In interpreting the information, if a given total flow is below the mean value, then the cumulative flow is less than average, or less volume has passed through the station than average at that point in time. The percentiles in the
calc_ function are flexible using the
# A tibble: 12 x 10 STATION_NUMBER Month Mean Median Maximum Minimum P5 P25 P75 <chr> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Jan 3.06e6 2.60e6 1.64e7 8.45e5 1.48e6 1.95e6 3.55e6 2 08NM116 Feb 5.89e6 4.95e6 2.46e7 1.73e6 2.70e6 3.82e6 6.45e6 3 08NM116 Mar 1.07e7 8.91e6 3.83e7 3.09e6 4.88e6 6.63e6 1.19e7 4 08NM116 Apr 3.20e7 2.89e7 7.41e7 9.90e6 1.30e7 2.32e7 3.70e7 5 08NM116 May 9.72e7 9.15e7 1.60e8 5.03e7 5.46e7 7.76e7 1.13e8 6 08NM116 Jun 1.56e8 1.56e8 2.55e8 7.62e7 9.41e7 1.26e8 1.85e8 7 08NM116 Jul 1.72e8 1.77e8 3.02e8 8.14e7 9.96e7 1.30e8 2.06e8 8 08NM116 Aug 1.78e8 1.81e8 3.12e8 8.50e7 1.03e8 1.34e8 2.19e8 9 08NM116 Sep 1.84e8 1.87e8 3.24e8 8.68e7 1.05e8 1.40e8 2.28e8 10 08NM116 Oct 1.90e8 1.93e8 3.38e8 8.82e7 1.08e8 1.46e8 2.31e8 11 08NM116 Nov 1.95e8 1.95e8 3.46e8 8.95e7 1.10e8 1.52e8 2.34e8 12 08NM116 Dec 1.98e8 1.97e8 3.51e8 9.07e7 1.12e8 1.55e8 2.39e8 # ... with 1 more variable: P95 <dbl>
plot_monthly_cumulative_stats() function will plot the monthly total mean, median, maximum, and minimum values along with the 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th percentiles all on one plot. The percentiles are not customizable for this function.
plot_daily_cumulative_stats() functions calculate the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles of total cumulative daily flows. For each day of each year, the total volume or runoff yield is determined. Then within a given year, the cumulative total for each day is determined by added all previous days (ex. Jan-01 = Jan-01 total; Jan-02 = Jan-01+Jan-02 totals, etc.). Then the mean, median, maximum, minimum, and percentiles are calculated based on those daily cumulative totals for each year. In interpreting the information, if a given total flow is below the mean value, then the cumulative flow is less than average. In other words, less volume has passed through the station than normal at that point in time. Viewing the plot below may help understand how this function works. The percentiles in the
calc_ function are flexible using the
# A tibble: 365 x 11 STATION_NUMBER Date DayofYear Mean Median Minimum Maximum P5 P25 <chr> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Jan-~ 1 9.32e4 8.38e4 28339. 2.17e5 4.67e4 5.97e4 2 08NM116 Jan-~ 2 1.84e5 1.60e5 55123. 4.12e5 9.18e4 1.19e5 3 08NM116 Jan-~ 3 2.73e5 2.36e5 80179. 5.81e5 1.35e5 1.79e5 4 08NM116 Jan-~ 4 3.63e5 3.13e5 104717. 7.69e5 1.82e5 2.41e5 5 08NM116 Jan-~ 5 4.52e5 3.88e5 130810. 9.53e5 2.32e5 3.09e5 6 08NM116 Jan-~ 6 5.41e5 4.67e5 158026. 1.12e6 2.81e5 3.68e5 7 08NM116 Jan-~ 7 6.33e5 5.47e5 184982. 1.29e6 3.27e5 4.31e5 8 08NM116 Jan-~ 8 7.28e5 6.23e5 212112. 1.45e6 3.72e5 4.96e5 9 08NM116 Jan-~ 9 8.25e5 7.12e5 240365. 1.80e6 4.17e5 5.63e5 10 08NM116 Jan-~ 10 9.21e5 8.03e5 269222. 2.21e6 4.65e5 6.27e5 # ... with 355 more rows, and 2 more variables: P75 <dbl>, P95 <dbl>
plot_daily_cumulative_stats() function will plot the daily cumulative total mean, median, maximum, and minimum values along with the 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th percentiles all on one plot. The percentiles are not customizable for this function.
Beside the basic summary statistics, there are other useful statistics for interpreting annual streamflow data. They include the following::
calc_annual_flow_timing()- calculate annual flow timing
calc_annual_lowflows()- calculate annual low flow values and dates
calc_annual_peaks()- calculate annual low and high flow values and dates
calc_annual_outside_normal()- calculate annual days above and below normal
calc_all_annual_stats()- calculate all
and their corresponding and other plotting functions:
plot_annual_flow_timing()- plot annual flow timing
plot_annual_lowflows()- plot annual low flow values and dates
plot_annual_outside_normal()- plot annual days above and below normal
plot_annual_means()- plot annual means compared to the long-term mean
calc_annual_flow_timing() calculates the day of year when a portion of a total annual volumetric flow has occurred. Using the
percent_total argument, one or multiple portions of annual flow can be calculated. Using 50 as the
percent_total is similar to the center of volume or timing of half flow. The day of year and date will be also be produced.
# A tibble: 44 x 10 STATION_NUMBER Year DoY_25pct_TotalQ Date_25pct_Tota~ DoY_33.3pct_Tot~ <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <date> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 135 1974-05-15 146 2 08NM116 1975 146 1975-05-26 153 3 08NM116 1976 143 1976-05-22 151 4 08NM116 1977 124 1977-05-04 131 5 08NM116 1978 134 1978-05-14 142 6 08NM116 1979 126 1979-05-06 133 7 08NM116 1980 127 1980-05-06 132 8 08NM116 1981 141 1981-05-21 145 9 08NM116 1982 147 1982-05-27 155 10 08NM116 1983 126 1983-05-06 137 # ... with 34 more rows, and 5 more variables: Date_33.3pct_TotalQ <date>, # DoY_50pct_TotalQ <dbl>, Date_50pct_TotalQ <date>, DoY_75pct_TotalQ <dbl>, # Date_75pct_TotalQ <date>
The timing of flows can also be plotted.
calc_annual_lowflows() calculates the annual minimum values, the day of year, and dates of specified rolling mean days (can do multiple days if desired).
# A tibble: 44 x 14 STATION_NUMBER Year Min_1_Day Min_1_Day_DoY Min_1_Day_Date Min_3_Day <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <date> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 0.447 333 1974-11-29 0.533 2 08NM116 1975 0.320 11 1975-01-11 0.378 3 08NM116 1976 0.736 38 1976-02-07 0.741 4 08NM116 1977 0.564 73 1977-03-14 0.627 5 08NM116 1978 0.532 55 1978-02-24 0.630 6 08NM116 1979 0.411 268 1979-09-25 0.416 7 08NM116 1980 0.623 9 1980-01-09 0.632 8 08NM116 1981 0.398 261 1981-09-18 0.468 9 08NM116 1982 0.815 6 1982-01-06 0.883 10 08NM116 1983 0.530 357 1983-12-23 0.562 # ... with 34 more rows, and 8 more variables: Min_3_Day_DoY <dbl>, # Min_3_Day_Date <date>, Min_7_Day <dbl>, Min_7_Day_DoY <dbl>, # Min_7_Day_Date <date>, Min_30_Day <dbl>, Min_30_Day_DoY <dbl>, # Min_30_Day_Date <date>
The annual low flow values and the day of the low flow values can be plotted, separately, using the
calc_annual_peaks() calculates the annual minimum and maximum values, the day of year, and dates of specified rolling mean days.
# A tibble: 44 x 8 STATION_NUMBER Year Min_1_Day Min_1_Day_DoY Min_1_Day_Date Max_1_Day <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <date> <dbl> 1 08NM116 1974 0.447 333 1974-11-29 66 2 08NM116 1975 0.320 11 1975-01-11 48.7 3 08NM116 1976 0.736 38 1976-02-07 71.1 4 08NM116 1977 0.564 73 1977-03-14 36 5 08NM116 1978 0.532 55 1978-02-24 44.5 6 08NM116 1979 0.411 268 1979-09-25 43 7 08NM116 1980 0.623 9 1980-01-09 46.2 8 08NM116 1981 0.398 261 1981-09-18 60.6 9 08NM116 1982 0.815 6 1982-01-06 54.5 10 08NM116 1983 0.530 357 1983-12-23 60.2 # ... with 34 more rows, and 2 more variables: Max_1_Day_DoY <dbl>, # Max_1_Day_Date <date>
calc_annual_outside_normal() calculates the number of days per year that are above and below “normal”, “normal” typically defined as 25th and 75th percentiles. The normal limits can be determined using the
normal_percentiles argument, listing the lower and upper normal ranges, respectively (e.g.
normal_percentiles = c(25, 75)). The function calculates the lower and upper percentiles for each day of the year over all years and sums all days that are above or below the daily normal ranges for a given year. Rolling averages can also be used in this function using the
# A tibble: 44 x 5 STATION_NUMBER Year Days_Below_Normal Days_Above_Normal Days_Outside_Normal <chr> <dbl> <int> <int> <int> 1 08NM116 1974 72 77 149 2 08NM116 1975 138 32 170 3 08NM116 1976 54 144 198 4 08NM116 1977 107 8 115 5 08NM116 1978 21 114 135 6 08NM116 1979 144 67 211 7 08NM116 1980 79 61 140 8 08NM116 1981 15 203 218 9 08NM116 1982 35 208 243 10 08NM116 1983 14 208 222 # ... with 34 more rows
Each of the above, below, and total days outside of normal can be plotted using the
calc_all_annual_stats() calculates all statistics that have a single annual value. This includes all the
calc_annual_* and the
calc_monthly_statistics() functions. Several arguments provided for customization of the statistics. There is no corresponding plotting function for this calculation function.
 "STATION_NUMBER" "Year" "Annual_Maximum"  "Annual_Mean" "Annual_Median" "Annual_Minimum"  "Annual_P10" "Annual_P90" "Min_1_Day"  "Min_1_Day_DoY" "Min_3_Day" "Min_3_Day_DoY"  "Min_7_Day" "Min_7_Day_DoY" "Min_30_Day"  "Min_30_Day_DoY" "Total_Volume_m3" "Jan-Jun_Volume_m3"  "Jul-Dec_Volume_m3" "Jan-Mar_Volume_m3" "Apr-Jun_Volume_m3"  "Jul-Sep_Volume_m3" "Oct-Dec_Volume_m3" "Total_Yield_mm"  "Jan-Jun_Yield_mm" "Jul-Dec_Yield_mm" "Jan-Mar_Yield_mm"  "Apr-Jun_Yield_mm" "Jul-Sep_Yield_mm" "Oct-Dec_Yield_mm"  "DoY_25pct_TotalQ" "DoY_33pct_TotalQ" "DoY_50pct_TotalQ"  "DoY_75pct_TotalQ" "Days_Below_Normal" "Days_Above_Normal"  "Days_Outside_Normal" "Jan_Mean" "Jan_Median"  "Jan_Maximum" "Jan_Minimum" "Jan_P10"  "Jan_P20" "Feb_Mean" "Feb_Median"  "Feb_Maximum" "Feb_Minimum" "Feb_P10"  "Feb_P20" "Mar_Mean" "Mar_Median"  "Mar_Maximum" "Mar_Minimum" "Mar_P10"  "Mar_P20" "Apr_Mean" "Apr_Median"  "Apr_Maximum" "Apr_Minimum" "Apr_P10"  "Apr_P20" "May_Mean" "May_Median"  "May_Maximum" "May_Minimum" "May_P10"  "May_P20" "Jun_Mean" "Jun_Median"  "Jun_Maximum" "Jun_Minimum" "Jun_P10"  "Jun_P20" "Jul_Mean" "Jul_Median"  "Jul_Maximum" "Jul_Minimum" "Jul_P10"  "Jul_P20" "Aug_Mean" "Aug_Median"  "Aug_Maximum" "Aug_Minimum" "Aug_P10"  "Aug_P20" "Sep_Mean" "Sep_Median"  "Sep_Maximum" "Sep_Minimum" "Sep_P10"  "Sep_P20" "Oct_Mean" "Oct_Median"  "Oct_Maximum" "Oct_Minimum" "Oct_P10"  "Oct_P20" "Nov_Mean" "Nov_Median"  "Nov_Maximum" "Nov_Minimum" "Nov_P10"  "Nov_P20" "Dec_Mean" "Dec_Median"  "Dec_Maximum" "Dec_Minimum" "Dec_P10"  "Dec_P20"
plot_annual_means() function provides a way to visualize how annual means fluctuate around the long-term mean. The x-axis is located at the long-term mean annual discharge (mean of all discharge values over all years) and the bars shows the annual means. The plot is essentially an anomaly plot but with their y-value matching the mean value and not difference from the mean.
There are several functions that provide more in-depth analyses. These functions begin with
compute_ instead of
calc_ and typically produce more than just a tibble data frame of statistics, like the
calc_ functions. Most of these produce a list of objects, consisting of both tibbles and plots. There are three groups of analysis functions: annual trending, annual volume frequency analyses, and a full analysis (of most
fasstr functions). There is a separate vignette for each analysis type to provide more information.
compute_annual_trends() function calculates prewhitened non-parametric annual trends on streamflow data using the
zyp package. The function calculates various annual metrics using the
calc_all_annual_stats() function and then calculates and plots the trending data. The magnitude of trends is first computed using the Theil-Sen approach. Depending on the selected method, either
"yuepilon", the trends are adjusted for autocorrelation and then a Mann-Kendall test for trend is applied to the series. See the
zyp package and the trending vignette for more information.
compute_annual_trends() function outputs several objects in a list:
calc_all_annual_stats()function used for trending
ggplot2object for every annual statistic trended, with the slope plotted if an alpha value is chosen using the
zyp_alpha = 0.05).
There are five
fasstr functions that perform various volume frequency analyses. Frequency analyses are used to determine probabilities of events of certain sizes (typically annual high or low flows). The analyses produce plots of event series and computed quantiles fitted from either Log-Pearson Type III or Weibull probability distributions. See the frequency analysis vignette for more information.
compute_annual_frequencies() performs an annual daily (or selected duration using
roll_days argument) low-flow (by default) or high-flow (using
use_max = TRUE argument) frequency analysis on annual series. This analysis uses the daily mean lows or highs. The
compute_hydat_peak_frequencies() function performs an annual instantaneous low (by default) or high peak frequency analysis. The
data argument cannot be used for the HYDAT peak analysis. Both functions output several objects in a list:
ggplot2object of the frequency plot
fitdistrplusobjects of the fitted distributions.
compute_frequency_quantile() function performs annual daily (or selected duration) low-flow (by default) or high-flow (using
use_max = TRUE argument) frequency analysis on annual series but only returns the fitted quantile based on the selected return period. Both the numeric arguments
return_period are required. It results in a single value. For example, supplying
roll_days = 7 and
return_period = 10 to the function with a data set will return the 7-day low-flow with a 10-year return period (i.e. 7Q10).
To compute a volume frequency analysis on custom data, use the
compute_frequency_analysis() function. The data points to be used in the analysis must be provided in a data frame with a column of events (or years), the flow values (values), and the measure (or the type of value it is, “7-day lows”, for example. All other data filtering options are not included.
If desired, a suite of
fasstr functions can be computed using the
compute_full_analysis(), producing lists of tables and plots organized in lists by analysis type.
write_full_analysis() will create both all the objects and also write data to your computer, in Excel-ready formats and image files. The filetypes of plots and tables can be set using the
table_filetype arguments, respectively. See the full analysis vignette for more information on customizing the analyses and statistics.
The plots and tables are grouped into the following analyses:
While tidying and filtering data to desired parameters or time periods can be completed to flow data frames prior to passing them onto
fasstr functions, a suite of function arguments have been provided to allow for in-function customization of tidying and filtering. Described here are some of the options available in
fasstr functions on how to handle missing dates, filter for specific years or months, and select desired statistics from some of the
fasstr functions. Not all functions have all these options see the documentation for each function usage (can also use
?calc_annual_stats to see documentation in R).
Most functions will automatically (
ignore_missing = FALSE) not calculate a statistic for a given period (a year or month or day of year, for example) if there is a date with missing data (
NA value) and will result in an NA value or will not plot (base
na.rm = FALSE). For example, if there at least one missing day for a given year, an annual statistic will not be calculated for that year. A warning message will appear in the console indicating as such to ensure the user is aware of missing data. See the following code for an example with missing dates:
If you want to calculate the statistics regardless of missing dates, use the
ignore_missing = TRUE argument. Otherwise you may need to filter for complete data years (see the
There are several options in the function that allow you choose year options and to filter for specific time periods. If there is a specific period, years or months, to be analyzed there are several options to customize the data supplied. While filtering of data can be done to your flow data set prior supplying it to a function (using
dplyr filtering, for example), these options provide quick solutions for in-function filtering that can be incorporated into a workflow.
By default, the functions will analyze/group/filter data by calendar years (Jan-Dec). However, some analyses require use of water years, or hydrologic years, starting in other months. If use of water years is desired not starting in January, then set
water_year_start with a month other than 1. The water year is identified by the calendar year in which it ends. For example, a water year from Oct 2000 to Sep 2001 would be water year 2001.
Example of a default water year, starting in October:
Example of a water year starting in August:
To specify select years used in your analysis, the
end_year arguments (providing a single value) can filter the years. Using the
exclude_years argument (providing a single or vector of years) will allow you to remove certain years from the analysis. Leaving these arguments blank will include all years in the data set for the analysis.
Example of filtering for start and end years:
Examples of removing certain years (outliers, bad data, etc.) using exclude_years:
If your data has missing dates, but you would like to use only those years with complete data, some functions utilize the
complete_years argument where the data will automatically be filtered for years with complete data and statistics will be calculated. Only years with complete data will be included into the following example.
Some functions, like below, require only years with complete data (statistics are based on full years of data), so years with missing dates will be automatically ignored:
Some functions allow you to specify select months used in your analysis, using the
months argument. By providing a vector of months (1 through 12) only those months will be used in an analysis. For example, using the
months argument with the
calc_annual_stats() function will calculate the annual statistics for only those months listed. So, if summer statistics are required you supply
months = 6:8 to the function. Leaving this arguments blank will include all months in the data set for the analysis.
Example of filtering for months June through August:
A few functions, including the
plot_flow_duration() functions will allow you to add a customized time period to your data frame or plot. Using the
custom_months argument you can list a vector of months (numeric 1:12). By default, the data will be labelled as “Custom-Months” but can be customized by providing a character string to the
Example of custom months and labelling:
Some functions allow you to specify analyzing the data using rolling mean data as opposed to the daily means. For those functions with the
roll_align arguments, analyses will be computed on the daily mean by default (can leave them blank if so). If choosing to conduct an analysis on 7-day rolling means, you would set
roll_days = 7. Some functions allow multiple rolling days to be provided (see function documentation). The
roll_align argument determines the direction of the rolling mean: see the “Adding rolling means” portion in Section 4 to see how the
roll_align work together.
Example of a 7-day rolling mean analysis (single
Example of a 7- and 30-day rolling mean analysis (multiple
fasstr function comes with their default statistics to be calculated. While some cannot be changed (some plotting functions), most have the ability to customize what is calculated. Look up the default settings for each function in their documentation (
?calc_longterm_daily_stats for example).
By default, the basic summary statistics functions will calculate the mean, median, maximum, and minimum values for each time period; these will automatically be calculated can cannot be removed by an argument option (can remove afterwards if necessary). These functions also calculate default percentiles, which can be customized by changing the desired percentiles by providing a numeric vector of numbers (between 0 and 100) to the
This example shows the default percentiles for the
calc_annual_stats() function (10 and 90th percentiles):
This example shows custom percentiles for the
calc_annual_stats() function (5 and 25th percentiles):
The following are some examples of how to customize results from other types of functions. See function documentations for full argument uses.
Example of calculating dates of the 10 and 20 percent of total annual flow:
Example of plotting the number of days per years outside of the 10th and 90th percentiles (25th and 75th percentiles are default):
An option when working with the functions that produce data frames is to transpose the rows and columns of the data. Most functions by default provide data results such there are columns of statistics for each station and time period. See the example here:
# A tibble: 13 x 8 STATION_NUMBER Month Mean Median Maximum Minimum P10 P90 <chr> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Jan 1.20 0.965 9.5 0.160 0.548 1.85 2 08NM116 Feb 1.15 0.968 4.41 0.140 0.489 1.97 3 08NM116 Mar 1.82 1.38 9.86 0.380 0.720 3.70 4 08NM116 Apr 8.33 6.22 37.9 0.505 1.54 17.8 5 08NM116 May 23.6 20.9 74.4 3.83 9.37 40.8 6 08NM116 Jun 21.3 19.4 84.5 0.450 6.10 38.6 7 08NM116 Jul 6.42 3.94 54.5 0.332 1.02 14.7 8 08NM116 Aug 2.11 1.57 13.3 0.427 0.779 4.21 9 08NM116 Sep 2.21 1.62 14.6 0.364 0.740 4.35 10 08NM116 Oct 2.10 1.65 15.2 0.267 0.803 3.95 11 08NM116 Nov 2.02 1.71 11.7 0.260 0.562 3.78 12 08NM116 Dec 1.31 1.08 7.30 0.342 0.5 2.37 13 08NM116 Long-term 6.14 1.89 84.5 0.140 0.685 19.3
In some circumstances, however, it may be more convenient to wrangle the data such that there are columns for stations (or groupings) and a single column with all statistics, and then the values are placed in columns for each respective time period. See the following example when setting
transpose = TRUE.
# A tibble: 6 x 15 STATION_NUMBER Statistic Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug <chr> <fct> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> 1 08NM116 Mean 1.20 1.15 1.82 8.33 23.6 21.3 6.42 2.11 2 08NM116 Median 0.965 0.968 1.38 6.22 20.9 19.4 3.94 1.57 3 08NM116 Maximum 9.5 4.41 9.86 37.9 74.4 84.5 54.5 13.3 4 08NM116 Minimum 0.160 0.140 0.380 0.505 3.83 0.450 0.332 0.427 5 08NM116 P10 0.548 0.489 0.720 1.54 9.37 6.10 1.02 0.779 6 08NM116 P90 1.85 1.97 3.70 17.8 40.8 38.6 14.7 4.21 # ... with 5 more variables: Sep <dbl>, Oct <dbl>, Nov <dbl>, Dec <dbl>, # `Long-term` <dbl>
Depending on the plotting function, discharge data will be plotted using a linear or a logarithmic scale (depending on the scale of data). This can be altered using the
log_discharge argument. Here is example of plotting with a linear scale (default
log_discharge = FALSE):
Set the discharge scale to be logarithmic (
log_discharge = TRUE):
include_title argument adds the station number (or grouping identifier from the
groupings argument), and in some cases the statistics as well. The argument’s default is
Example of including a title when plotting (
include_title = TRUE):
Example of including a title when plotting
include_title = TRUE where the statistic is also displayed:
Customizing a plot by using additional
library(ggplot2) # Create the plot list and extract the plot using [] plot <- plot_daily_stats(station_number = "08NM116", start_year = 1980)[] # Customize the plot with various `ggplot2` functions plot + geom_hline(yintercept = 1.5, colour = "red", linetype = 2, size = 1) + geom_vline(xintercept = as.Date("1900-03-01"), colour = "darkgray", linetype = 1, size = 0.5) + geom_vline(xintercept = as.Date("1900-08-05"), colour = "darkgray", linetype = 1, size = 0.5) + ggtitle("Mission Creek Annual Hydrograph") + ylab("Flow (cms)")
To support saving the
fasstr tables and plots to a directory, there are several functions included in this package. These include the following:
write_flow_data()- write a streamflow data set as a .xlsx, .xls, or .csv file
write_results()- write a data frame as a .xlsx, .xls, or .csv file
write_plots()- write plots from a list into a directory or PDF document
write_objects_list()- write all tables and plots contained in a list
To directly save a streamflow data set from HYDAT or your own custom data frame onto your computer, you can use the
write_flow_data() function. By listing the
data data frame, the data set will save a file into the working directory, unless otherwise specified using the
file_name argument. If using the
station_number argument and listing only one station without listing a name with
file_name, the name will include the number and followed by "_daily_data.xlsx“; and if multiple stations are listed the name will be”HYDAT_daily_data.xlsx“. When using the
data argument without listing a name with
file_name the default name will be
fasstr_daily_data.xlsx. To use another file type than”xlsx" (options are “xlsx”, “xls”, or “csv”) provide a file name using the
file_name argument with the desired extension. Other argument options for this function include:
The following will write an “xlsx” file called “08NM116_data_data.xlsx” into your working directory that includes all daily flow data from that station in HYDAT:
The following is an example of possible customization:
While you can use the base R
writexl package functions to save your data, the package provides a function with options to choose for file type and the rounding of digits. To directly save a data frame onto your computer you can use the
write_results() function. This function allows you to decide on file extensions of “xlsx”, “xls”, or “csv” by including it in the
file_name argument when you name the file. This function also allows you to round all numeric columns by selecting the number of digits using the numeric
As all plots produced with this package are contained within lists, a function is provided to assist in saving a list of plots into either a folder, where all plot files are named by the object names within the list, or combined PDF document, using the
write_plots() function. The name of the folder or PDF document is provided using the
folder_name argument. If the folder does not exist, one will be created. Options to customize output size with
dpi arguments, as similar to those in
ggplots2:ggsave(), can also be used.
The following will save each annual plot as a “png” file in a folder called “Annual Plots” in the working directory:
The following will save all annual plots as combined “pdf” document called “Annual Plots” in the working directory with each plot on a different page:
If you would prefer to save the plots using other functions, like the
ggplot2::ggsave() function, the desired plot must subsetted from the list first so the object provided the function is a plot object and not a list. Individual plots can be subsetted from their lists using either the dollar sign, $ (e.g.
one_plot <- plots$plotname), or double square brackets, [ ] (e.g.
one_plot <- plots[[plotname]] or
one_plot <- plots[]).
As some objects produced with this package, mainly with the
compute_* functions, contain lists of both data frames and
ggplot2 objects, a function is provided, called
write_objects_list(), to assist in saving all objects within the list into a designated directory folder, where all table and plot files are named by the object names. The name of the folder is provided using the
folder_name argument. If the folder does not exist, one will be created. The file type for tables and plots are chosen using the
plot_filetype arguments respectively. There are also options to customize plot output size with
dpi arguments, as similar to those in
ggplots2:ggsave() can also be used.
The following will save all plots and tables in a folder called “Frequency Analysis” in the working directory: